2021年“智慧城市”意味着什么:数字双胞胎、人工智能和其他创新如何推动智慧转型

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随着美国城市感受到城市增长的压力,房租上涨速度快于收入增长速度,50多万人无家可归,种族和社会公平问题持续存,其中一些正取得亟需的进展。它们正成为麦肯锡全球研究所定义的“智慧城市”,一个利用技术和数据做出更好决策、改善生活质量的地方

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对于任何一个城市来说,一个关键的条件就是要了解它的地理位置,而地理位置决定了它是什么,它能成为什么样的城市。

随着美国城市感受到城市增长的压力,房租上涨速度快于收入增长速度,50多万人无家可归,种族和社会公平问题持续存,其中一些正取得亟需的进展。它们正成为麦肯锡全球研究所(McKinsey Global Institute)定义的“智慧城市”,一个利用技术和数据做出更好决策、改善生活质量的地方

对于任何一个城市来说,一个关键的条件就是要了解它的地理位置,而地理位置决定了它是什么,它能成为什么样的城市。这就是为什么城市规划系统的支柱是地理学的科学和实践。过去的一代中,城市机构采用了地理信息系统(GIS),最初是作为财产管理、基础设施、交通和公共安全的记录系统。过去的十年中,他们这个基础上建立了嵌入式传感器、移动设备、高速无线连接、指数数据和高级分析。

其结果是一个真正的智慧城市的潜力,不仅支付能力和便利性方面,而且加深社会联系方面

少数城市和社区正渴望实现这一愿景。他们正使用传感器来实时输入数据中心,人工智能(AI)用于更快的应用,多层社会人口数据,三维模型来构建和分析城市的数字孪生模型,以及我们将这里探讨的其他技术创新

三维模型和数字孪生模型

波士顿,规划人员启动了103个主要项目,其中包括8000多个新住宅单元。他们首先制作了一张三维智能地图,用于可建土地分析,包括许可要求和环境影响

他们利用这些三维地图创建了一个数字孪生模型,包括建筑、基础设施和植被。城市规划师通过添加设计和数据层来探索和优化开发,从而迭代使用数字孪生模型的项目

数字孪生兄弟还可以提供具体的社区和建筑物的情况下到地板或房间的水平,并进入现有结构(包括屋顶)以上的空域洞察。三维地图或数字孪生模型使管理人员、急救人员、运输工人、医疗保健提供者、当地企业、教育工作者以及最重要的居民都能获得所有这些信息

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英文译文:

As U.S. cities feel the strain of urban growth—rents rising faster than incomes, more than half a million people homeless, persistent racial and social equity issues—some are making much-needed strides. They are becoming what McKinsey Global Institute defines as a “smart city,” a place where technology and data are used to enable better decisions that improve quality of life.

A critical condition for any city has been an understanding of the physical location that determines what it is and what it can become. That is why the anchor of urban planning systems is the science and practice of geography. For the past generation, city agencies have adopted geographic information systems (GIS), initially as systems of record for property management, infrastructure, transit, and public safety. Over the past decade, they built on this foundation with embedded sensors, mobile devices, high-speed wireless connectivity, exponential data and advanced analytics.

The result is the potential for a truly smart city, not only in terms of affordability and convenience, but also in terms of deepened social bonds.

A handful of cities and communities is aspiring to this vision. They are employing sensors for real-time inputs to data hubs, artificial intelligence (AI) for faster applications, multi-layered social demographic data, 3-D models to build and analyze their city’s digital twin, and other tech innovations that we’ll explore here.

3-D models and the digital twin

In Boston, planners have initiated 103 major projects that include 8,000+ new residential units. They started with a 3-D smart map for buildable lands analysis, including permitting requirements and environmental impact.

They used these 3-D maps to create a digital twin—a model of the city encompassing buildings, infrastructure and vegetation. Urban planners iterate projects with the digital twin by adding designs and data layers to explore and optimize development.

The digital twin can also provide insight on the condition of specific neighborhoods and buildings—down to the floor or room levels, and up into the airspaces above existing structures including rooftops. A 3-D map or digital twin makes all this information available to managers, first responders, transit workers, healthcare providers, local businesses, educators and, most importantly, residents.

 

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