美国必须重新定义数字时代的关键基础设施

温馨提示:全文约1673字,阅读全文大约需要2分钟

自从新政以来,美国对基础设施的定义基本保持不变,当时联邦政府二战前更新了公路、铁路和供水。那时,通信技术处于他们的早期阶段——广播是FCC的唯一焦点——但是过去的25年里,数字通信发展得很快,成为日常美国生活的基础。不幸的是,这一流行病暴露了我们现代通信基础设施的重大弱点,包括该国另一场灾难袭击之前必须解决的问题

自从新政以来,美国对基础设施的定义基本保持不变,当时联邦政府二战前更新了公路、铁路和供水。那时,通信技术处于他们的早期阶段——广播是FCC的唯一焦点——但是过去的25年里,数字通信发展得很快,成为日常美国生活的基础。不幸的是,这一流行病暴露了我们现代通信基础设施的重大弱点,包括该国另一场灾难袭击之前必须解决的问题

尽管取得了多项革命性的技术进步,但美国政府对关键基础设施的理解过去的20世纪并未得到发展,这使得许多现代通信资产容易受到网络犯罪分子的攻击。美国目前定义 16个关键基础设施行业 作为经济不可或缺的一部分,尤其是将“通信”和“信息技术”作为单独的部门,这种方法对当今的数字基础设施有着过时的理解。前一类中,美国寻求保护“地面、卫星和无线传输系统”,而后者一般侧重于“互联网”

21世纪,尤其是国家安全不断受到国内外行为者威胁的时期,网络安全要求对数字通信有一个全面而非孤立的理解。今天的威胁行为者很少针对卫星天线、电缆线路或发射塔进行毁灭性攻击;他们也不会试图关闭整个互联网。相反,他们封锁了医院和水处理设施,迫使公司或云服务离线,并勒索从制造商服务器上窃取的未来产品设计

例如,联邦调查局 德克萨斯州一名男子被捕,令人震惊 涉嫌策划对亚马逊网络服务(AWS)数据中心的大规模轰炸。尽管私人拥有的数据中心可能不是传统的“基础设施”,但一次AWS故障可能会导致互联网的大量瘫痪,电子商务占主导地位的世界上造成数百万美元的损失

现,想想只有一个社交媒体平台:Twitter对经济和政治的影响。去年,一个青少年 视觉技巧 同时利用知名的推特账号进行比特币诈骗——这是一次巨大的、厚颜无耻的黑客攻击,可能会造成更严重的后果。此之前,一名黑客利用美联社的推特账户谎称白宫遭到攻击,造成了这起事件 股市陷入恐慌和暴跌。与AWS一样,Twitter并不属于“基础设施”的传统定义,但这类攻击和Twitter政治传播中日益增长的作用之间,Twitter对美国经济的重要性无疑是巨大的

阅读整篇文章>

 

 

英文译文:

America’s definition of infrastructure has remained largely unchanged since the New Deal, when the federal government updated roads, railways, and water supplies ahead of World War II. Back then, communications technologies were in their infant stage — radio broadcasting was the FCC’s sole focus — but over the past 25 years, digital communications have evolved at a rapid pace and become the foundation of daily American life. Unfortunately, the pandemic revealed major weaknesses in our modern communications infrastructure, including issues the country must address before another disaster strikes.

Despite multiple revolutionary technological advances, the US government’s understanding of critical infrastructure hasn’t evolved past the 20th century, leaving many modern communications assets vulnerable to cybercriminals. The US currently defines 16 critical infrastructure sectors as integral to the economy, notably including “communications” and “information technology” as separate sectors, an approach steeped in an outdated understanding of today’s digital infrastructure. In the former category, the US seeks to protect “terrestrial, satellite and wireless transmission systems,” while the latter focuses generally on “the internet.”

In the 21st century, and particularly during a time when national security is now continually threatened by foreign and domestic actors, cybersecurity demands a holistic rather than siloed understanding of digital communications. Today’s threat actors rarely target satellite dishes, cable lines, or cell towers for devastating attacks; they also don’t attempt to turn off the entire Internet. Instead, they lock down hospitals and water treatment facilities, force companies or cloud services offline, and ransom future product designs stolen from manufacturers’ servers.

For instance, the FBI’s alarming arrest of a Texas man for allegedly planning a mass bombing of Amazon Web Services (AWS) data centers. Though privately owned data centers might not be traditional “infrastructure,” an AWS outage can take down huge chunks of the internet, resulting in multimillion-dollar losses in a world where e-commerce reigns supreme.

Now, think about the economic and political impacts of just one social media platform: Twitter. Last year, a teenager used vishing techniques to simultaneously co-opt high-profile Twitter accounts for a Bitcoin scam — a huge, brazen hack that could have had much worse consequences. Before that, a hacker used Associated Press’s Twitter account to falsely claim that the White House had been attacked, causing the stock market to panic and plummet. Like AWS, Twitter doesn’t fall under the traditional definition of “infrastructure,” but between these sorts of attacks and Twitter’s growing role in political communications, it certainly has outsized importance to the US economy.

 

 

Share this Post:

相关资讯: