无论如何,黄蜂的重点是什么?

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这个故事最初出现监护人身上,是气候咨询台合作的一部分。

对于那些询问黄蜂的点是什么,现有一个全面的答案。它专注于33,000种已知的狩猎黄蜂,其中携带蜇伤并生活世界的每个角落中。

黄奶酪和黄蜂队,给予了糟糕的野餐害虫,弥补了所有黄蜂种类的一小部分。

许多昆虫种群正困扰,威胁人类福祉,但黄蜂似乎更具弹性。

“当我告诉陌生人我学习黄蜂时,他们走了'哦,什么是黄蜂的点?”

这个故事最初出现监护人身上,是气候咨询台合作的一部分。

对于那些询问黄蜂的点是什么,现有一个全面的答案。它们是害虫昆虫的贪婪捕食者,毒液中产生强大的抗生素,授粉植物,甚至营养营养零食。

他们提供的生态系统服务的第一次重大科学审查中,对人类的益处揭示了他们所提供的生态系统服务。它专注于33,000种已知的狩猎黄蜂,其中携带蜇伤并生活世界的每个角落中。

黄奶酪和黄蜂队,给予了糟糕的野餐害虫,弥补了所有黄蜂种类的一小部分。但即使它们提供了鲜为人知的帮助,例如蔬菜贴片上呼吸毛虫。 Yellowjacket毒液也被调查为有前途的癌症治疗。

许多昆虫种群正困扰,威胁人类福祉,但黄蜂似乎更具弹性。然而,即使昆虫学家中,许多人似乎避免了他们,科学家们说需要更多的研究来理解它们。

“当我告诉陌生人我学习黄蜂时,他们走了'哦,什么是黄蜂的点?”“伦敦大学学院的Seirian Sumner教授说。 “你为什么不学习蜜蜂?他们更有用。“她以前的研究表明,人们讨厌黄蜂,因为他们没有意识到他们所做的事情。

“我们对蜜蜂刺痛的想法非常满意,因为我们知道他们世界上做得很好,”她说。 “所以我们已经收集了可用的证据,以便其生态系统服务方面将黄蜂放地图上。黄蜂可能与其他心爱的昆虫一样有价值,如蜜蜂,如果只有我们给他们更多机会。“

该研究发表生物审查期刊,分析了关于刺痛黄蜂的500个科学报告。有100,000种已知的黄蜂物种,但70,000种是寄生,寄生,毫无疑问,研究得很好。它们已经用于农业以控制害虫而不使用杀虫剂。大约有22,000种蜜蜂。 “黄蜂是蜜蜂的祖先,所以蜜蜂是遗忘了如何狩猎的黄蜂,”Sumner说。

黄蜂是昆虫世界的顶级掠夺者。最近的研究发现,普通的狩猎黄蜂可以控制秋季军队袭击巴西的玉米作物,以及吃甘蔗的螟虫。科学家发现,使用其他捕食性昆虫保护作物的保护作物估计价值超过4000亿美元,但狩猎黄蜂几乎没有考虑过。

Yellowjackets和黄蜂队是那些可能是最有效的,因为它们是社会昆虫,生活大殖民地。 “所以你有很多猎人出去那里,去除昆虫和节肢动物,”Sumner说。大约1,000种狩猎黄蜂物种是社会社会。其余的是孤独的。

“孤零零的黄蜂是超级凉爽的。他们的毒液其中有一个令人难以置信的鸡尾酒,它瘫痪了猎物,并且还有很多抗生素,“Sumner说。许多孤零零的黄蜂用瘫痪的猎物埋葬他们的鸡蛋,以提供一旦孵化的食物。 “所以他们想确保食物被正确保留。” WASP毒液,唾液和幼虫分泌的抗菌性质长期以来传统医学中得到了认可。

Sumner的分析发现芥末患者的证据是访问至少960种植物物种,其中164种完全依赖于授粉。它们包括兰花,它通过模仿雌性黄蜂的后端来吸引雄性黄蜂。

狩猎芥末访问花卉喂养花蜜,因为他们捕获的昆虫专门向巢穴喂回巢穴。如果这种行为实际上授粉植物,科学家也不知道。 “但是有用的是令人讨厌的黄色诡计,因为当你把这些放显微镜下时,它们真的非常毛茸茸,可以花粉中覆盖,”Sumner说。

黄蜂,特别是幼虫,也被世界各地的人收获并从日本到印度到委内瑞拉。

科学家们说,克服对黄蜂的偏见并不容易,因为他们已经被描绘成仇恨。古希腊Polymath Aristotle写道,“黄蜂和黄蜂......只有蜜蜂的东西没有任何神圣的问题。”圣经中,上帝将黄蜂派为三本不同书籍对罪人的惩罚。

科学家们说:“我们期待黄蜂人类健康和幸福方面的关键作用的未来。”


英文译文:

This story originally appeared on The Guardian and is part of the Climate Desk collaboration.

For those who have asked what the point of wasps is, there is now a comprehensive answer. They are voracious predators of pest insects, produce powerful antibiotics in their venom, pollinate plants, and even make a nutritious snack.

The benefits to humans of the much-hated insects are revealed in the first major scientific review of the ecosystem services they provide. It focused on the 33,000 known species of hunting wasps, which carry stings and live in every corner of the world.

Yellowjackets and hornets, the picnic pests that have given wasps a bad name, make up a small proportion of all wasp species. But even they provide help that is little known, such as hoovering up caterpillars on vegetable patches. Yellowjacket venom is also being investigated as a promising cancer treatment.

Many insect populations are plunging, threatening human well-being, but wasps seem to be more resilient. Even among entomologists, however, many appear to avoid them, and the scientists said much more research was needed to understand them.

“When I tell strangers I study wasps, they go ‘Oh, what’s the point of wasps?’” said professor Seirian Sumner at University College London. “Why don’t you study bees instead? They’re much more useful.” Her previous research showed that people hated wasps because they were unaware of what they did.

“We’re quite happy with the idea that bees sting, because we know that they do good in the world,” she said. “So we have gathered the evidence available to put wasps on the map in terms of their ecosystem services. Wasps could be just as valuable as other beloved insects like bees, if only we gave them more of a chance.”

The study, published in the journal Biological Reviews, analyzed 500 scientific reports on stinging wasps. There are 100,000 known wasp species, but 70,000 are parasitic, which are stingless and quite well studied. They are already used in farming to control pests without using insecticides. There are about 22,000 species of bees. “Wasps are the ancestor of bees, so bees are wasps that have forgotten how to hunt,” said Sumner.

Wasps are top predators of the insect world. Recent research found that common hunting wasps can control the fall army worm that attacks maize crops in Brazil, as well as a borer moth that eats sugarcane. The use of other predatory insects to protect crops is estimated to be worth more than $400 billion a year, but hunting wasps have barely been considered, the scientists found.

Yellowjackets and hornets are among those likely to be most effective, because they are social insects and live in large colonies. “So you’re having lots of hunters going out there and removing insects and arthropods,” said Sumner. About 1,000 of the hunting wasp species are social. The rest are solitary.

“Solitary wasps are super cool. Their venom has an incredible cocktail in it that paralyzes the prey and also has lots of antibiotics in it,” said Sumner. Many solitary wasps bury their eggs with paralyzed prey to provide food once hatched. “So they want to make sure the food is properly preserved.” The antimicrobial properties of wasp venom, saliva, and larval secretions have long been recognized in traditional medicine.

Sumner’s analysis found evidence of wasps visiting at least 960 plant species, of which 164 were completely dependent on them for pollination. They include orchids whose flowers attract male wasps by mimicking the back end of a female wasp.

Hunting wasps visit flowers to feed on nectar, as the insects they catch are fed exclusively to the larvae back in the nest. Scientists do not know yet if this behavior actually pollinates plants. “But what’s likely to be useful are the much-hated yellowjackets because, when you put those under a microscope, they’re really quite hairy and can be covered in pollen,” Sumner said.

Wasps, particularly the larvae, are also harvested and eaten by people around the world, from Japan to India to Venezuela.

Overcoming prejudice against wasps will not be easy, the scientists said, because they have long been portrayed as hateful. The ancient Greek polymath Aristotle wrote that “hornets and wasps … have nothing divine about them as the bees have.” In the Bible, God sends hornets as punishment to sinners in three different books.

The scientists said: “We look forward to a future where the critical roles of wasps in multiple facets of human health and well-being are recognized.”


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