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上周,大卫·巴雷特中央公园一个棒球场的篱笆上发现了那只雪白的猫头鹰时,他知道这将是一件大事。巴雷特是一位经验丰富的观鸟者,是广受欢迎的Twitter帐户“曼哈顿鸟警报”背后的力量,他立即意识到这是多么罕见:自从1890年以来,白雪皑皑的猫头鹰就没有出现纽约市。当他赶回家向@BirdCentralPark的40,000多名关注者发布推文时,吸引这么多人到这只鸟的位置的前景沉重了。

上周,大卫·巴雷特(David Barrett)中央公园一个棒球场的篱笆上发现了那只雪白的猫头鹰时,他知道这将是一件大事。巴雷特(Barrett)是一位经验丰富的观鸟者,是广受欢迎的Twitter帐户“曼哈顿鸟警报”(Manhattan Bird Alert)背后的力量,他立即意识到这是多么罕见:自从1890年以来,白雪皑皑的猫头鹰就没有出现纽约市。这些猫头鹰生活北极地区,但更多冬天游牧,有时飞到加拿大和东北部,但很少到纽约南部。

巴雷特还知道这正是可能吸引人群的那只鸟。他说:“我知道参与其中会很大。”这不仅是纽约客一生中的第一次发现,而且白雪皑皑的猫头鹰也很可能使非观鸟者兴奋。当他赶回家向@BirdCentralPark的40,000多名关注者发布推文时,吸引这么多人到这只鸟的位置的前景沉重了。

但是他发了推文。

“我经营着信息服务,”巴雷特谈到他的Twitter提要。 “公园里的鸟儿对我的推文是公平的游戏。人们想知道的是稀有鸟类,因此负责获取信息是我的责任。如果我不这样做,其他人会这样做。”

Twitter和其他诸如eBird的观鸟网站近年来对观鸟社区起到了推动作用。这些景点使一些幸运的鸭子(以及猫头鹰和鹰)成为了名人,这些物种吸引了我们当中鸟类学较少的人。他们为新来的人提供了观鸟的机会,并为狂热的观鸟者提供了分享照片,技巧和令人兴奋的发现的空间,不仅帮助了很多人找到嗜好,而且帮助了社区。 Audubon CT和Audubon NY的社区保护经理Ken Elkins说:“我们只是通过用户名彼此开始,然后互相撞鸟,然后建立联系。”网上,您的年龄,经验或背景都不重要,他说:“您可以参与对话。”

Twitter帐户帮助集会鸟类救助者。曼哈顿鸟类康复中心野生鸟类基金会(WBF)经常向其9000多个追随者发出求助电话,包括需要的鸟类的位置。 WBF的联合创始人兼董事Rita McMahon说:“这是一种资源,因为它速度很快,人们可以立即得到它,这与电子邮件或我们网站上发布的任何内容相比都是巨大的收益。”

但是,并不是所有的观鸟社区都对将互联网的注意力集中不需要的鸟类上并可能吸引大量崇拜者的想法感到兴奋。人群会使鸟类不安并影响其正常行为。鸟类可能会将所有人视为掠食者或争夺食物。有时候,很难确切地知道所有那些用摄像机欢呼雀跃,争抢位置或慢慢向前迈步以获得更好外观的人们正如何改变鸟类的行为。

麦克马洪不赞成“曼哈顿鸟类警报”之类的说法,并且担心成群的小鸟如何影响动物。她不支持吸引他们的Twitter帐户。她说:“我希望他们停下来。”她指出了一些猫头鹰的例子,这些猫头鹰曾经中央公园的莎士比亚花园附近筑巢。随着它们的受欢迎程度的提高,热切的公众开始砍伐树木以获得更好的视野。由于所有的注意,猫头鹰不再去那里了。

麦克马洪说,尽管WBF使用Twitter进行救援,但该组织从不共享释放经过修复的鸟类的位置,即使它们是非常稀有或受欢迎的物种。 “我不希望那只稀有的鸟被人包围!”她说。 “我们希望和平。它不需要观鸟。”

埃尔金斯说,奥杜邦CT限制了他们公开分享的猫头鹰发现的次数,并且如果他认为这只鸟处于弱势地位或随之而来的受欢迎程度可能会造成问题,他经常选择不发表一些发现。 。他说:“我发现一些敏感的猫头鹰可能会与其他人共享。”他甚至可能避免将相机摆弄太久,以免吸引路人问他看什么。他说:“我不希望人们试图掩藏栖息地中的鸟儿周围徘徊。”

自巴雷特(Barrett)于2013年首次启动以来,“曼哈顿鸟类警报”(Manhattan Bird Alert)有了长足发展。一开始,这些警报针对的是严重的观鸟者,并且只共享该动物的种类和位置。巴雷特还自动化了一个系统,该系统将观鸟社区中转发标记该帐户的其他人。他之所以选择Twitter,是因为它快速,易于使用,并且不需要人们加入特殊的小组,甚至不需要拥有帐户即可查看内容。他吸引了数千名追随者。

然后,2018年,《纽约时报》一篇关于年轻人对观鸟产生兴趣的文章中对巴雷特进行了报道。该帐户的关注度得到提高,增长到约10,000人。那年下半年,,鸭到了。颜色鲜艳的鸭子是东亚的居民,中央公园的一个池塘周围度过了几个月的时间,吸引了大批群众和绰号“热鸭”。宣布鸟类出现的曼哈顿鸟类警报(Manhattan Bird Alert)突然引起国际轰动。巴雷特接受了国际媒体的采访,他的Twitter追随者人数激增。

自那以来,这一数字一直增长,特别是当许多纽约人开始将观鸟作为该城市剩下的最后一种大流行安全娱乐活动之一时。随着名人风度的增长,巴雷特对该帐户的目标也发生了变化。他说:“我很幸运能够突然吸引这么多人,这是我很幸运的事情。” “我想尽我最大的努力做到这一点。”

他摆脱了自动化,现专注于寻找可共享的好照片和视频。他还给猫头鹰这样的受欢迎的物种提供了更多的空间,它们吸引了更多的听众,而不是那些可能只会让最忠诚的观鸟者兴奋的物种。巴雷特说,他几乎每隔一分钟都考虑帐户。他还负责布鲁克林,布朗克斯,皇后区和长岛的鸟类发现活动,尽管这些活动远不如他曼哈顿的活动受欢迎。他说:“我已经成为鸟类信息的纽带。”

话虽如此,巴雷特广播白雪皑皑猫头鹰的出现前后确实格外小心。首先,他注意到这只鸟棒球场中间闲逛,并受到相当坚固的金属围栏的保护,这将有助于防止人群拥挤。接下来,他提醒了该市的城市公园巡游者,以便他们为人群做准备。他推特上发布了警告,提醒人们不要拥挤猫头鹰或靠近猫头鹰。 “我认为将会有很多不熟悉猫头鹰的人来。我想向人们表明,打破公园规则以获得更好的视野是不适当的。”巴雷特说。

尽管他对共享稀有鸟类的位置有所保留,但埃尔金斯承认,中央公园的雪是特例。埃尔金斯说:“中央公园是如此的公开,以至于有人会找到它。” “有足够多的其他观鸟者,这些鸟不会过着保密的生活。”

尽管如此,他还是警告观察者要谨慎,要保持谨慎:不要停留太久,否则会吓到小鸟飞翔。绝对不要喂它。分享鸟的位置之前,请先考虑一下鸟所处的特定环境:是筑巢吗?它高高的树枝上安全吗?还是处于脆弱的位置,很难逃脱人群的窥视?他建议刚接触的观鸟者参考奥杜邦道德的鸟类摄影指南,并分享令人振奋的发现之前询问其经验丰富的观鸟者。


英文译文:

The moment when David Barrett spotted the snowy owl through the fence at one of Central Park’s baseball fields last week, he knew this was going to be an event. Barrett, an experienced birder and the force behind the wildly popular Twitter account Manhattan Bird Alert, immediately understood just how rare a sighting this was: A snowy owl hasn’t graced New York City since 1890. These owls live in the Arctic but are more nomadic in the winters, sometimes flying into Canada and the Northeast, but rarely as far south as New York City.

Barrett also knew this was exactly the kind of bird that was likely to draw a crowd. “I knew going into it this would be big,” he says. Not only was this the first sighting in any New Yorker’s lifetime, but the snowy owl is a species that is likely to get non-birders excited, too. The prospect of attracting so many people to the bird’s location weighed on him as he rushed home to tweet it out to @BirdCentralPark’s more than 40,000 followers.

But tweet he did.

“I run an information service,” Barrett says of his Twitter feed. “A bird in a public park is fair game for my tweets. A rare bird is something that people want to know about, so it’s my responsibility to get the information out. If I don’t do it, someone else will.”

Twitter and other bird-sighting sites like eBird have given a boost to the birding community in recent years. The sites have made celebrities out of a few lucky ducks (and owls and hawks), species that appeal to the less ornithologically-inclined among us. They’ve made birding accessible to newcomers and given avid bird watchers a space to share photos, tips, and exciting discoveries, helping many people to find not just a hobby, but a community. “We just see each other by user names to start, and then we bump into each other out birding and we make that connection,” says Ken Elkins, community conservation manager for Audubon CT and Audubon NY. Online, your age, experience, or background don’t matter, he says: “You can be part of the conversation.”

And Twitter accounts have helped rally bird rescuers. The Wild Bird Fund (WBF), a bird rehabilitation center in Manhattan, often tweets out calls for help, including the location of birds in need, to their more than 9,000 followers. “It is a resource because it's fast and people get it right away, and that’s a big boon versus email or anything we’d post on our website,” says Rita McMahon, WBF’s cofounder and director.

But not everyone in the birding community is thrilled about the idea of focusing the attention of the internet on a bird that’s not in need, and is likely to draw a flock of admirers. Crowds can make birds uneasy and affect their normal behavior. Birds may perceive all those humans as predators or competition for food. Sometimes it’s hard to know exactly how all those leering people with cameras, jockeying for position or slowly inching forward for a better look, are changing the bird’s behavior.

McMahon does not approve of accounts like Manhattan Bird Alert and worries about how the crowds of gawkers are affecting the animals. She isn’t supportive of the Twitter accounts that draw them. “I’d like them to stop,” she says. She points to the example of some owls that used to nest near Shakespeare Garden in Central Park. As their popularity grew, the eager public began to cut away the trees to get a better view. Because of all the attention, owls don’t go there anymore.

McMahon says that while the WBF uses Twitter for rescue calls, the organization never shares where it releases rehabilitated birds, even if they are very rare or popular species. “I don’t want that rare bird being surrounded by people!” she says. “We want it to be in peace. It does not need birders.”

Elkins says that Audubon CT has limited the number of owl sightings they’ve shared publicly, and that he often chooses not to post about some of his sightings if he thinks the bird is in a vulnerable position or if the ensuing popularity might cause a problem. “There have been some sensitive owls that I have found that I might just share with one other person,” he says. He might even avoid hanging around too long with his camera so he doesn’t attract passersby who will ask about what he’s looking at. “I don’t want people to linger around a bird that’s trying to hide for the day in its roost site,” he says.

Manhattan Bird Alert has grown considerably since Barrett first started it in 2013. In the beginning, the alerts were targeted to serious birders and would just share the species and location of the animal. Barrett also automated a system that would retweet others in the birding community who tagged the account. He chose Twitter because it was fast, easy to use, and didn’t require people to join a special group or even to have an account to see the content. He racked up a few thousand followers.

Then, in 2018, The New York Times featured Barrett in an article about young people getting interested in birding. The account’s following got a boost, growing to around 10,000 people. Later that year, the Mandarin duck arrived. The brightly colored duck, a denizen of East Asia, spent several months hanging out around a Central Park pond, attracting huge crowds and the nickname “hot duck.” Manhattan Bird Alert, which had announced the bird’s presence, suddenly became an international sensation. Barrett was interviewed by international media outlets and his Twitter followership swelled even more.

The account has continued to grow since, especially as many New Yorkers are turning to birding as one of the last pandemic-safe recreational activities left in the city. As the handle’s celebrity has grown, Barrett’s goals for the account have changed too. “I’ve realized I was fortunate to have something that suddenly appealed to so many people,” he says. “I wanted to do my best to make it the best I could make it.”

He’s gotten rid of the automation and now focuses on finding good photos and videos to share. He’s also given more space to popular species like owls, which appeal to a larger audience, than to species that might only get the most devoted birders excited. Barrett says he thinks about the account nearly every waking minute. He also runs accounts for bird sightings in Brooklyn, the Bronx, and Queens and Long Island, although those are significantly less popular than his Manhattan account. “I’ve become the nexus of birding information,” he says.

That said, Barrett did take extra care before and after broadcasting the snowy owl’s presence. First, he noticed that the bird was hanging out in the middle of a baseball field and was protected by a fairly substantial metal fence that would help keep crowds at bay. Next, he alerted the city’s Urban Park Rangers so they could prepare for the crowd. And he tweeted out warnings for people not to crowd the owl or get too close. “I figured quite a few people unfamiliar with owls would be coming by. I wanted to make it clear to people that it would be improper to break the rules of the park to get a better view,” Barrett says.

Even though he has some reservations about sharing the locations of rare birds, Elkins acknowledges that a snowy owl in Central Park is something of a special case. “Central Park is so extremely public that somebody else is going to find it,” Elkins says. “There are enough other birders that the bird is not going to live a life of secrecy.”

Still, he warns watchers to err on the side of caution: Don’t stay too long, or spook the bird into flying. Definitely don’t feed it. Think about the specific environment the bird is in before sharing its location: Is it nesting? Is it safe in a high tree branch, or is it in a vulnerable position where it will be hard to for it to escape a crowd’s prying eyes? He recommends that newly-minted birders consult Audubon’s ethical bird photography guide and ask their more experienced counterparts before sharing a particularly exciting find.


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